【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代

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原文

The next generation will need a new set of skills to survive, let alone thrive, in an AI world. Literacy, numeracy, science and languages are all important, but they share one thing in common: computers are going to be far better than humans at processing these forms of explicit knowledge.

 

The risk is that the education system will be churning out humans who are no more than second-rate computers, so if the focus of education continues to be on transferring explicit knowledge across the generations, we will be in trouble.

 

The AI challenge is not just about educating more AI and computer experts, although that is important. It is also about building skills that AI cannot emulate. These are essential human skills such as teamwork, leadership, listening, staying positive, dealing with people and managing crises and conflict.

 

These are all forms of tacit knowledge, not explicit knowledge. They are know-how skills, not know-what skills. Know-what is easy to transmit across the generations, and is easy to measure. Know-how skills are hard both to transmit and to measure.

 

The employability skills gap is already large, and AI will only make it larger. A McKinsey survey found that 40 per cent of employers cited lack of skills to explain entry-level vacancies in their companies. Sixty per cent said that even graduates were not ready for the world of work.

 

 

The scale of the current response in the UK does not match the challenge. University technical colleges, the brainchild of former education secretary Lord Baker, explicitly address employability, with a focus on developing engineers, technicians and scientists of the future. In the last academic year, just 1,955 18-year olds graduated from these schools; compared to the 770,000 18-year olds in the UK, that is a drop in the ocean.


In a similar vein, “studio schools” started in 2010 with the intent of blending vocational and academic education with work experience. Of the 50 schools started, 16 have already announced plans to close. Both models are sufficiently different from traditional provision that they struggle to gain acceptance.

 

The required revolution is unlikely to come from creating schools outside the mainstream. It will have to come from within, supporting all pupils, not just those who want a technical career.

Enabling Enterprise, a charity backed by employers including bank UBS, consultants PwC and supermarket Waitrose, aims to embed employability skills into the curriculum from the earliest years. For instance, five-year olds can learn teamwork with simple routines based on sharing and taking turns. Although the charity says its results look promising, it has reached just 275 schools so far.

 

Evaluation and league tables are a barrier to success — you get what you measure in education as much as you do in business. The schools accountability framework keeps changing, but is always some variation on measuring how well schools transfer know-what skills, especially English and maths. The Progress 8 framework, which assesses student progress in eight subjects, has no direct measure of employability skills.

Tom Ravenscroft, chief executive of Enabling Enterprise, challenges this approach: “We are doubling down on the idea that if we get children to know things and regurgitate them in a certain way in an exam, then we are setting them up for success in life.”

 

Success depends on equipping the next generation with human skills that even AI cannot emulate: creativity, innovation, resilience, dealing with conflict, ambiguity and uncertainty. We are not ready for this. We have not even started to get ready.


2

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03


The next generation will need a new set of skills to survive, let alone thrive, in an AI world. Literacy, numeracy, science and languages are all important, but they share one thing in common: computers are going to be far better than humans at processing these forms of explicit knowledge.

 

The risk is that the education system will be churning out humans who are no more than second-rate computers, so if the focus of education continues to be on transferring explicit knowledge across the generations, we will be in trouble

.

  • a new set of skills   新的一套技能,这里set作为量词“一套”讲时还可以修饰牙齿。例如我们说笑得时候露出一口大白眼,可以表示为 a set of white teeth。

  • thrive  |θraɪv|

 [单独使用的动词] to become, and continue to be, successful, strong, healthy, etc. 兴旺发达;繁荣;蓬勃发展;旺盛;茁壮成长 =flourish

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代New businesses thrive in this area.

新商家在这一地区蓬勃兴起

  • let alone 更不用说,别提,除此之外let alone 还可以表示“不打扰,惊动”这时也可以说成leave sb alone

to stop annoying sb or trying to get their attention 不打扰;不惊动

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代She's asked to be left alone but the press photographers follow her everywhere.她要求别打扰她,但是摄影记者到处都跟着她

  • explicit  |ɪkˈsplɪsɪt|

 (of a statement or piece of writing 陈述或文章) clear and easy to understand 清楚明白的;易于理解的

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代He gave me very explicit directions on how to get there.

他清楚地向我说明了去那儿的路线。

(of a person 人) saying sth clearly, exactly and openly (说话)清晰的,明确的;直言的;坦率的 =frank

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代She was quite explicit about why she had left.

她对自己离开的原因直言不讳。

said, done or shown in an open or direct way, so that you have no doubt about what is happening 直截了当的;不隐晦的;不含糊的

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代The reasons for the decision should be made explicit.

应该直截了当给出决定的理由。

  • churn 做名词讲是指做奶油的搅拌器,由此引申出的动词意思就有“剧烈搅动,猛烈翻腾”的意思,此外当我们表达恶心,反胃等强烈反应或者 心烦意乱等情绪时也可以用这个词,比如【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代“名单一宣布,我就觉得胃里翻腾得难受”,这句话就可以说成【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代 My stomach churned as the names were read out.

  • churn sth↔out

(informal,often disapproving) to produce sth quickly and in large amounts (粗制滥造地)大量生产,大量炮制

04

The AI challenge is not just about educating more AI and computer experts, although that is important. It is also about building skills that AI cannot emulate.These are essential human skills such as teamwork, leadership, listening, staying positive, dealing with people and managing crises and conflict.

These are all forms of tacit knowledge, not explicit knowledge. They are know-how skills, not know-what skills. Know-what is easy to transmit across the generations, and is easy to measure. Know-how skills are hard both to transmit and to measure


The employability skills gap is already large, and AI will only make it larger. A McKinsey survey found that 40 per cent of employers cited lack of skills to explain entry-level vacancies in their companies. Sixty per cent said that even graduates were not ready for the world of work.

  • emulate  |ˈemjuleɪt|

 [动词 + 名词短语]

(formal) to try to do sth as well as sb else because you admire them努力赶上;同…竞争【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代She hopes to emulate her sister's sporting achievements.她希望在运动成绩方面赶上她姐姐

这个词我们也可以换成 rival sb\sth in \for| compare with 例如【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代“你能看到的景色可与你在阿尔卑斯山所见的任何景色相媲美” 【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代You will find scenery to rival anything you can see in the Alps.

  • know-how 这个词我们一般翻译成为指导“知道怎么做”,实际上就是指一个人所具备的专门技能,从整个人类的发展史来看,知道怎么做的技能是无法被智能工具所取代的。

 [不可数名词](informal) knowledge of how to do sth and experience in doing it 专门知识;技能;实际经验【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代We need skilled workers and technical know-how.我们需要熟练工人和专业技术知识。

  • know-what   知道是什么

  • employability skills gap  就业技能差距

  • entry-level [常用于名词前]  

(of a product 产品) basic and suitable for new users who may later move on to a more advanced product 适合初级用户的;入门级的

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代an entry-level computer

供初学者使用的计算机

(of a job 工作) at the lowest level in a company (公司中)最初级的

  • cite |saɪt|在本句中直接可以用say\suggest 等词代替

 [动词 + 名词短语](formal)

~ sth (as sth) to mention sth as a reason or an example, or in order to support what you are saying 提及(原因);举出(示例);列举

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代He cited his heavy workload as the reason for his breakdown.

他说繁重的工作负荷是导致他累垮的原因。

to speak or write the exact words from a book, an author, etc. 引用;引述;援引=quote

(law 律) to order sb to appear in court; to name sb officially in a legal case 传唤;传讯

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代She was cited in the divorce proceedings.

她在离婚诉讼中被传唤。

05

The scale of the current response in the UK does not match the challenge. University technical colleges, the brainchild of former education secretary Lord Baker, explicitly address employability, with a focus on developing engineers, technicians and scientists of the future. In the last academic year, just 1,955 18-year olds graduated from these schools; compared to the 770,000 18-year olds in the UK,that is a drop in the ocean.


In a similar vein, “studio schools” started in 2010 with the intent of blending vocational and academic education with work experience. Of the 50 schools started, 16 have already announced plans to close. Both models are sufficiently different from traditional provision that they struggle to gain acceptance.


  • brainchild  |ˈbreɪntʃaɪld|

[单数] an idea or invention of one person or a small group of people (个人或小群体的)主意,发明

  • technician  |tekˈnɪʃn|

a person whose job is keeping a particular type of equipment or machinery in good condition 技术员;技师

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代laboratory technicians

实验室技术员

a person who is very skilled at the technical aspects of an art, a sport, etc. (艺术、体育等的)技巧精湛者,精于技巧者

  •  that is a drop in the ocean 沧海一粟

  • In a similar vein    以同样的方式

  • vein 本指脉路,在人体中是指“静脉”,在动植物中是指“叶脉、翅脉”,如果用在地质学中则是指“矿脉、矿层”。比如说“金矿脉”——【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代“a vein of gold”

  • intent 做形容词讲是有两层意思一是热切的;一是专注的。如“专注的目光、神情”可以说“an intent gaze\look  ”。

    此外 be intent on\upon sth 则表示专心于做某事

  • blend  |blend|  

a mixture of different types of the same thing (不同类型东西的)混合品,混合物=mixture【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代a blend of tea混合茶叶

[常用单数形式] a pleasant or useful combination of different things (不同事物的)和谐结合,融合【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代a blend of youth and experience 年轻而且有经验

  • sufficiently充分地,这样表示程度的副词可以换为“adequately\fully\plenarily

  • provision  |prəˈvɪʒn|  ,作名词有三个意思“供给,准备,条款”,这里是指线上教育和传统教育的规范不同。

[不可数名词, 可数名词, 常用单数形式] the act of supplying sb with sth that they need or want; sth that is supplied 提供;供给;给养;供应品比如说【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代住房供应可以表达成 housing provision

[不可数名词, 可数名词] ~ for sb/sth preparations that you make for sth that might or will happen in the future (为将来做的)准备【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代比如说“我们要采取措施,以防不测。”可以这样说You should make provision for things going wrong.

 provisions [复数] supplies of food and drink, especially for a long journey 饮食供应;(尤指旅途中的)粮食

[可数名词] a condition or an arrangement in a legal document (法律文件的)规定,条款

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代Under the provisions of the lease, the tenant is responsible for repairs.按契约规定,房客负责房屋维修。

  • struggle to gain acceptance.  在表达否定意思时不一定非要用not,还可以用struggle 来表达,我们知道struggle本来是指挣扎着做某事,但在翻译时会经常处理成为“未能做某事”这样更能够形象的表达出挣扎这一动作所表现出来的结果。比如在说【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代“要按时做好准备确非易事”时可以这样表达 It was a real struggle to be ready on time.


06


The required revolution is unlikely to come from creating schools outside the mainstream. It will have to come from within, supporting all pupils, not just those who want a technical career.

必要的改革未必是来自外界主流企业创办学校的需要。也可能是为帮助所有的学生,而不只是帮助那些想要以科技作为职业生涯的学生。

Enabling Enterprise, a charity backed by employers including bank UBS, consultants PwC and supermarket Waitrose, aims to embed employability skills into the curriculum from the earliest years. For instance, five-year olds can learn teamwork with simple routines based on sharing and taking turns. Although the charity says its results look promising, it has reached just 275 schools so far.

 

Evaluation and league tables are a barrier to success — you get what you measure in education as much as you do in business. The schools accountability framework keeps changing, but is always some variation on measuring how well schools transfer know-what skills, especially English and maths. The Progress 8 framework, which assesses student progress in eight subjects, has no direct measure of employability skills.

Tom Ravenscroft, chief executive of Enabling Enterprise, challenges this approach: “We are doubling down on the idea that if we get children to know things and regurgitate them in a certain way in an exam, then we are setting them up for success in life.”


Success depends on equipping the next generation with human skills that even AI cannot emulate: creativity, innovation, resilience, dealing with conflict, ambiguity and uncertainty. We are not ready for this. We have not even started to get ready.

  • PwC :普华永道国际会计事务所,成立于英国伦敦。全球顶级会计公司,位居四大会计师事务所之首。是由原六大会计事务所中规模最小但声望最高的Price Waterhouse(普华)与Coopers & Lybrand(永道)成功合并组成的。于1998年1月1日公司更名为PricewaterhouseCoopers。

  • embed   |ɪmˈbed|在这里是一种形象的用法,是指在早期就把职业技能陷入教学课程中去。

[动词 + 名词短语][常用被动态]

~ sth (in sth) to fix sth firmly into a substance or solid object 把…牢牢地嵌入(或插入、埋入)

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代The bullet embedded itself in the wall.

子弹射进了墙里。

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代(figurative)These attitudes are deeply embedded in our society (= felt very strongly and difficult to change) .

这些看法在我们这个社会中根深蒂固。

  • routine |ru:ˈti:n| 

[可数名词, 不可数名词] the normal order and way in which you regularly do things 常规;正常顺序

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代Make exercise a part of your daily routine .

让锻炼成为你日常生活的一部分

  • table  |ˈteɪbl|

.IN SPORT 体育运动

a list of sports teams, countries, schools, etc. that shows their position in a competition, etc. (竞赛等的)名次表,排名榜,积分表【僻意】

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代If Arsenal win this game they'll go to the top of the table.

阿森纳队如果赢得这场比赛,就会登上积分榜首。

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代school performance league tables

学校排名表

  • accountability framework 问责框架 

  • variation  |ˌveəriˈeɪʃn; 美 ˌver-|

[可数名词, 不可数名词] ~ (in/of sth) a change, especially in the amount or level of sth (数量、水平等的)变化,变更,变异

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代regional/seasonal variation (= depending on the region or time of year)

地区性 / 季节性变化

[可数名词] ~ (on sth) a thing that is different from other things in the same general group 变异的东西;变种;变体

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代This soup is a spicy variation on a traditional favourite.

这种汤是在一种受欢迎的传统汤羹中加了香料。

  • executive |ɪgˈzekjətɪv|

 [可数名词] a person who has an important job as a manager of a company or an organization (公司或机构的)经理,主管领导,管理人员

【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代advertising/business/sales, etc. executives

广告、业务、销售等主管

  • regurgitate

|rɪˈgɜ:dʒɪteɪt; 美 -ˈgɜ:rdʒ-|

[动词 + 名词短语]

(formal) to bring food that has been swallowed back up into the mouth again 使(咽下的食物)返回到口中;反刍

(disapproving) to repeat sth you have heard or read without really thinking about it or understanding it 照搬;拾人牙慧

上期请看:教育应该如何改革才能适应人工智能时代

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【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代
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【精读笔记15】教育如何改革才能适应人工智能时代
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